This text is a collaboration between New York Journal and The Verge.


The signal that Netflix’s tradition had irreversibly began to vary got here within the type of a Google doc. The corporate had lengthy prided itself on welcoming brutally sincere suggestions — a worth embodied by the Open Q&A doc, the place staff might ask executives powerful questions and anticipate a good-faith response. Co-CEO Reed Hastings had a status for answering queries from any division, regardless of how crucial or difficult, often inside a couple of days: How does Netflix really feel about giving cash to conservative politicians? Does the corporate remorse placing the controversial movie Cuties on the platform? Ought to 365 Days, a movie glorifying gender-based violence, be taken down?

On October eighth, 2021, dozens of staff eagerly awaited a response: the place does Netflix draw the road between commentary and hate speech?

Web page after web page full of offended blocks of textual content. “Is there a transparent distinction made between offensiveness and harmfulness to populations when evaluating what content material to purchase and air?” requested one. “If we will measure an urge for food from members for transphobic and bigoted content material, will we begin partnering with harmful celebrities, actors, and comedians who’re deliberately divisive (Owen Benjamin, Alex Jones, Ann Coulter) in an effort to ‘entertain the world’?” requested one other.

The impetus for the questions was Dave Chappelle’s newly launched comedy particular, The Nearer, which Netflix had purchased for $24.1 million. Many staff felt the comic had crossed a line together with his jokes in regards to the trans group. Netflix executives disagreed. Ted Sarandos, Netflix’s chief content material officer and co-CEO, despatched an electronic mail to administrators and executives on October eighth saying The Nearer wasn’t going anyplace. Chappelle’s prior particular, Sticks and Stones, was the corporate’s most-watched stand-up set to this point, however stats about its reputation did little to assuage those that discovered the jokes transphobic.

Sarandos’ response marked a tone shift at Netflix and in Silicon Valley extra broadly. In 2009, Hastings and chief expertise officer Patty McCord had revealed a 128-page PowerPoint presentation laying out their administration philosophy: lead with context, not management; don’t rent sensible jerks; and, most crucially, at all times be sincere. “It’s tantamount to being disloyal to the corporate should you fail to talk up while you disagree with a colleague or have suggestions that may very well be useful,” wrote Erin Meyer in No Guidelines Guidelines: Netflix and the Tradition of Reinvention, the e-book she revealed with Hastings in 2020.

The PowerPoint went viral in Silicon Valley, serving to to form a technology of tech startups seeking to outline their very own firm tradition. Then–Fb COO Sheryl Sandberg stated the presentation “could be a very powerful doc ever to come back out of the Valley.”

The veneer of transparency made Netflix some of the fascinating corporations to work for within the tech trade — a spot the place engineers might voice their opinions freely, really feel heard, and be paid round $500,000 a 12 months. However over the previous 10 years, as Netflix has gone from Hollywood outsider to some of the highly effective forces in leisure, the corporate’s relationship to its workforce has modified. Beforehand, streaming video was a large drawback that might solely be solved by investing in engineering expertise. (Recall that the recognition of reveals like Recreation of Thrones might overload HBO servers, making it tough for viewers to look at stay.) Now, essentially the most aggressive a part of Netflix’s enterprise isn’t what its coders produce — it’s what content material reveals up on the platform. And stress is mounting from its rivals. Streamers like Apple TV Plus and HBO Max are rising, whereas Netflix just lately introduced that it had misplaced subscribers for the primary time in additional than a decade. The information despatched its inventory tumbling 25 %, and the corporate has since laid off 450 individuals to deliver prices consistent with slowing income progress. Tech employees, in the meantime, say they’re experiencing a brand new sort of tradition shock: an more and more chilly response to their criticisms.

In an announcement, Netflix spokesperson Emily Feingold disputed the concept dissent is much less welcome than earlier than. “Netflix has at all times valued candid, clear suggestions and works exhausting to assist it at each stage of the corporate,” she stated.

However The Nearer put that dedication to the take a look at. “After Dave Chappelle, the traces of communication that had been open for years had been gone,” says a former engineer who requested to stay nameless.

Within the Google doc, one individual commented, “In Ted’s electronic mail to administrators, he calls out that Dave Chappelle is ‘one among our hottest comedians in the present day’ and his final particular is ‘our most watched, stickiest, and award profitable get up particular to this point.’ My interpretation of this message is that sticky metrics outweigh the potential of hurt. Is {that a} truthful interpretation of that electronic mail?”

Days handed, and the query remained unanswered.


Hastings has lengthy credited the corporate’s success to its inner work tradition. In 2000, he felt like a idiot after Blockbuster CEO John Antioco flatly rejected his supply to promote him Netflix for $50 million. Ten years later, Blockbuster was bankrupt and Netflix was price greater than $9 billion. “It was not apparent on the time, even to me, however we had one factor that Blockbuster didn’t: a tradition that valued individuals over course of, emphasised innovation over effectivity, and had only a few controls,” Hastings wrote in No Guidelines Guidelines, a e-book that’s equal components enterprise manifesto and Netflix gross sales pitch.

That tradition permeated the corporate’s engineering group. Even in Silicon Valley, the place coders had been handled like kings, Netflix stood out. The place corporations like Google and Apple had upwards of eight ranges to designate rank, Netflix primarily had one: senior software program engineer. Managers bent over backward to make individuals really feel at house and inspired staffers to present notes on points giant and small. Kevin Cureton, a software program engineer, wrote a memo shortly after he began about enhancements the engineering group wanted to make in the way it examined the Netflix app. The engineer didn’t maintain again, overtly calling out dysfunction and figuring out pointless obstacles to the method. “My supervisor was actually glad,” he remembers. “She stated, ‘That is the sort of context we’re on the lookout for individuals to deliver up.’ ”

The tradition of suggestions just isn’t atypical in engineering organizations, the place a small technical error can deliver down a complete services or products. “In tech, when one thing is actually unsuitable within the code, you wish to repair it or all the things will get tousled,” explains one former worker. However whereas an opinionated workforce is perhaps lauded in tech, elsewhere, it may very well be seen as brash and entitled. What number of creatives are desperate to obtain notes from engineers?

In 2017, the corporate opened the Icon constructing on Sundown Boulevard, cementing its place in Hollywood. In contrast with the Los Gatos headquarters, the brand new constructing was lavish; it had a number of safety checkpoints and a secret entrance for celebrities. Two years after it opened, The New York Occasions dubbed it the “City Corridor of Hollywood.” “I obtained into the workplace sooner or later, and I needed to ask Jack Black to step out of the way in which to get to the badge scanner,” a former engineering supervisor remembers. The constructing was meant to have an open ground plan — a tech staple that supposedly discourages a office pecking order — however most of the personal assembly rooms had been commandeered by administrators and producers. The corporate had even arrange domes within the break rooms for individuals to take calls. When staff visited from Los Gatos, they might find yourself wandering across the constructing with their laptops looking for a spot to take a gathering. (Netflix disputed this description of the workplace, noting “all these buildings have been revamped and we now have way more house within the workplaces.”)

What the constructing lacked in house, it made up for in glamour. As soon as, two engineers visiting from Los Gatos had been heading to the elevator once they heard somebody say, “Hey.” They regarded up and noticed Shaquille O’Neal giving them a pleasant nod. Later, they seen Chris Pine strolling down a hallway. “That by no means occurred in Los Gatos,” one says.

As Netflix expanded its unique content material division, worker useful resource teams, comprising staffers from throughout the group who shared a standard identification, started leaping into the artistic course of. It was an off-the-cuff collaboration: if Netflix was engaged on a film that handled a delicate subject, the producer would possibly attain out to the inclusion-and-diversity workforce, which might then contact an ERG to get suggestions. To these outdoors the corporate, it may need appeared odd — or irritating — that engineers had been attempting to assist form film plotlines. At Netflix, staffers noticed it as their proper and accountability to deliver firm values to life via the content material that appeared on the platform.

In Could 2018, Netflix acquired the rights to the movie Woman after it debuted at Cannes and received the Caméra d’Or. The story facilities on a trans teenager attempting to change into an expert dancer. Shortly earlier than the movie was set to come back out on Netflix, members of the Trans* ERG had been invited to an early screening.

Staff who watched the movie had been horrified. The digicam lingered on {the teenager}’s bare physique and glorified self-mutilation, ending with a scene through which the primary character cuts off her personal genitalia. The director and a co-writer had been each cisgender. “You’ve heard of the male gaze, proper?” the previous Netflix engineer, who watched the screening, says. “This felt just like the creepy gaze of the cisgender individual wanting over at a trans individual’s physique, after which it ended on an act of self-mutilation as self-liberation.”

Staff met with leaders within the content material division in individual a number of occasions to debate their considerations — conversations that had been overseen by the inclusion-and-diversity workforce. Two staffers who had been current on the conferences say the leaders had been initially defensive, noting the director had gotten optimistic response from trans viewers. However, ultimately, they agreed so as to add a warning forward of the movie. “This movie covers delicate points, and consists of some sexual content material, graphic nudity, and an act of self-harm,” it learn. “Viewer discretion is suggested.”

For administration, it was a comparatively small concession. However for the Trans* ERG, it was a win. Staff felt like that they had been heard. “We didn’t get all the things we needed, however we felt like, Okay, they’ve already paid for the film. They will’t not present it,” the previous engineer says. “However not less than they had been keen to work with us. The method felt collaborative despite the fact that it was a bit hostile.”

Within the early days, Sarandos was identified for taking criticism on the chin. An anecdote from No Guidelines Guidelines recounts a second when Sarandos misunderstood the licensing deal for The Blacklist in 2014. An worker 4 ranges beneath him referred to as him out in a gathering. Sarandos put his hand on the person’s shoulder and thanked him. However as the chief grew extra highly effective, he turned much less open to discussing what content material Netflix ought to have on the platform. He reportedly clashed with Cindy Holland, the previous vp of unique content material who was answerable for bringing in award-winning productions like Home of Playing cards and Roma, over the corporate’s contract with Chappelle. When Sarandos turned co-CEO in 2020, he fired the feminine govt.

A few of Sarandos’ lieutenants had been equally immune to suggestions, notably from Los Gatos staffers. What experience did techies have in making motion pictures? Over time, it began to really feel as if Netflix had been two separate corporations: the feedback-friendly tech group, the place everybody had an opinion on all the things, and the top-down Hollywood studio, the place executives had the ultimate phrase.

Cureton, the engineer who had been rewarded for sharing powerful suggestions early on in his tenure, moved from the product to the studio group and instantly discovered it much less open to criticism. When he tried to repair technical issues outdoors his scope of labor, he was warned to thoughts his personal enterprise. Finally, he was fired. “An excessive amount of suggestions and being out of my lane too usually had been the explanations I used to be given,” he says.


Executives may need been stunned on the stage of anger emanating from staff, however some already knew what they had been stepping into. A Netflix analyst had put collectively an in depth doc figuring out potential pink flags every week earlier than The Nearer was launched. “Nearly all of the set offers with cancel tradition and particularly his TERF-y views on trans individuals,” it learn.

The streaming large usually carried out analyses of movies. The ensuing briefs had been meant to alert all related events to offensive or boundary-pushing scenes, in line with an inner rationalization.

The evaluation doc for The Nearer recognized 20 pink flags within the stand-up set. “[00:49:55] A really imply spirited joke right here as he questions a trans girl who saved making reference to ‘her individuals’ — ‘Have been you all kidnapped in Transylvania and introduced right here as slaves?’ ” reads one. “[00:55:15] Chappelle calls a Trans vagina: ‘Past Pussy or Inconceivable Pussy,’ ” reads one other.

The evaluation concluded by saying Chappelle followers would “actually hit play,” whereas his detractors ought to “clearly keep away from these 71 minutes of unfettered, cynical, and sarcastically pointed observations.”

The temporary shocked some staff. A language supervisor in Brazil learn the doc and pinged a colleague on Slack. “To be sincere I used to be not anticipating content material so … surprising! I imply … it’s actually actually heavy!” she wrote. “We’ve got to comply with the artistic intent and right here he [sic] artistic intent is racist, homophobic, misogynist, and soiled.” A supervisor responded that this was Chappelle’s model: “I might insist that the artistic intent is adopted. It isn’t our place to tone down the content material.”

In fact, the tenor solely turned extra heated after the particular was launched. Staff had been infuriated as their Open Q&A questions went unanswered. “It positively stood out — I assume there was mainly any person saying, ‘Shut the fuck up whereas we determine this out,’ ” says a former Los Gatos engineer. (“Given the quantity of questions,” defined Netflix spokesperson Feingold, “we opted for city halls as an alternative.”) The Trans* ERG put collectively a listing of calls for, together with including a content material warning to The Nearer and different transphobic titles.

Netflix execs had no intention of doing that. The communications workforce allegedly advised staff that including a content material warning to The Nearer would open the door for international locations like Saudi Arabia to request related warnings on LGBTQ titles and famous that Netflix provides them on titles provided that the creator requests it. The one concession staff obtained was from the comedy workforce, which agreed to alert them the following time it launched a controversial particular. The workforce stayed true to its phrase: earlier than Netflix launched Ricky Gervais’ stand-up set in Could, which included jokes in regards to the trans group, staff obtained a heads-up that it was coming. This time, there was little or no pushback.

That very same month, Netflix revealed an replace to its tradition deck to incorporate a piece on creative freedom. It included the road “In case you’d discover it exhausting to assist our content material breadth, Netflix might not be the perfect place for you.” As the corporate was workshopping the memo, executives despatched round a draft for suggestions that included the road “As staff, we have to be ready to defend a broad vary of tales and storytellers, even when we discover particular person titles offensive or counter to our private values. Relying on our roles, we may additionally have to work on titles we want weren’t on Netflix, or wouldn’t select to look at.” Staff pushed again towards the usage of the phrase defend, and in a second that felt like Outdated Netflix, it was ultimately taken out.

Netflix additionally banned creatives from soliciting suggestions from ERGs, saying in an announcement that “the position of ERGs is to create a group of belonging for various teams inside Netflix quite than advise on content material.” If creatives have questions on delicate content material, they’re to contact the inclusion-and-diversity workforce, which can then seek the advice of with a third-party group.

On the nameless worker discussion board Blind, which requires customers to have a company electronic mail handle to entry company-specific channels, Netflix staffers are discussing the change. “As we speak, as a supervisor, we will’t converse up in content material or studio groups, and what Ted says goes,” says one. “Very prime down tradition and even after we increase the issues we see early on in our reveals, our voices usually are not heard.”

One individual instructed the corporate might lower your expenses if it fired extra higher-ups on the Hollywood aspect; one other consumer responded that Netflix ought to “cease spending astronomical quantities of cash on mediocre content material.”

It was a dialog that beforehand may need occurred within the Open Q&A doc. Now, the Google doc simply appeared like one other venue for Netflix executives to publish platitudes.



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